Max Hallinan

Fuzzy Thinking: Fuzz Testing and Formal Grammar

There are two rabbit holes here: fuzz testing and formal grammar. I traveled down both simultaneously and found that they converged. This article retraces those paths. The examples are written in Elm code but the ideas are not specific to that language.

Hunting for blindspots

But there are innumerable ways of dividing and selecting for attention the facts and events, the data, required for any prediction or decision, and thus when the moment comes for a choice there is always the rankling doubt that important data may have been overlooked.

— Alan Watts, This Is It and Other Essays on Zen and Spiritual Experience

Let’s say we have a function hexToRgb that converts a hex color string to an RGB value. The implementation of hexToRgb is unimportant. We’re only interested in the type signature. hexToRgb takes a string (the hex color value) and returns a Result with an error string or an RGB representation:

hexToRgb : String -> Result String ( Int, Int, Int )

Now we want to test hexToRgb. First, we write a unit test that asserts hexToRgb "#ffffff" returns Ok (255, 255, 255). This test focuses on the correctness of the conversion formula. If hexToRgb converts "#ffffff" to Ok (0, 0, 0), then it’s no use at all. So this is a reasonable first test to write. But once this test passes, we’re not done testing.

There are a handful of things that this test doesn’t tell us. For example, how do we know that hexToRgb can really handle any valid hex color string when we’ve only tested one? We might assume that hexToRgb will work for all valid strings if it works for "#ffffff". But maybe there’s an edge case we aren’t aware of. Or maybe hexToRgb returns an Err for any hex color that isn’t "#ffffff". We won’t know until we write more tests.

We could simply generate all the valid hex color strings and then write a test that calls hexToRgb on all of them. But there are a lot of hex colors. In fact, there are 16,777,216 six-digit and 4,096 three-digit hex color codes. So we decide to take this idea and scale it down. Instead of generating millions of hex colors, we generate 75 or a 100. And we generate these hex colors randomly each time the test runs.

It doesn’t matter that the hex colors are different each time the test runs because we’re not testing the conversion itself. We just want to test that nothing unexpected happens when we call hexToRgb with a valid hex color. The test will simply assert that hexToRgb returns an Ok _ for any valid hex string.

Generating random inputs

This approach to testing is called “fuzz” testing. Fuzz testing requires us to think more generally about our inputs. Instead of writing tests for specific values like "#ffffff", we write tests for kinds of values, in this case hex color strings.

We’re going to use the Fuzz module from the elm-community/elm-test package to generate these random inputs. Fuzz tests written with elm-community/elm-test use a fuzzer to generate random values of a certain type. For example Fuzz.string is a Fuzzer String that generates a random string of any length. Likewise, Fuzz.int is a Fuzzer Int that generates a random integer. If hexToRgb took any string or any integer, these fuzzers would be useful. Unfortunately, not every string or every integer is a valid hex color. And the Fuzz module does not expose a hex color string fuzzer. We have to define our own.

Defining our own fuzzer doesn’t mean implementing the Fuzzer type from scratch. In addition to basic fuzzers like Fuzz.string and Fuzz.int, the Fuzz module exposes helper functions that can be used to combine small, simple fuzzers into large, complex fuzzers. Our job is to break the concept of a “valid hex color” into smaller parts that can be represented by the tools we have. Then, we’ll use those tools again to connect these parts. The result will be a fuzzer that generates a random valid hex color string.

Thinking in patterns

Human thinking can skip over a great deal, leap over small misunderstandings, can contain ifs and buts in untroubled corners of the mind. But the machine has no corners.

— Ellen Ullman, Close to the Machine: Technophilia and Its Discontents

To find the elements of a hex color, let’s think of a hex color string as a pattern of characters: The first character of the string is always #. Every character after the first must be a valid hexadecimal digit. Hexadecimal digits are the integers 0 through 9 and the characters A through F. Lowercase and uppercase alphabetic characters are both valid. The hexadecimal string for a hex color is always three digits or six digits long.

This pattern doesn’t sound too complicated but our description of the pattern is ambiguous. For example, we forgot to mention that a hex number does not include any whitespace. Maybe those who are familiar with hex color strings would “leap over” this “small misunderstanding” but we can’t be certain that everyone would.

So we add another item to the list that says “Hex color strings do not contain whitespace”. But now we have to define whitespace. Is whitespace just a space character? Or spaces and tabs? What about linebreaks? In this way, the requirements become more verbose and misintepretation becomes more likely. Exact meanings are hard to express with natural language. We find ourselves reaching for a language with fewer possible meanings and fewer words required to say what we mean. This is when formal grammar becomes useful.

What is formal grammar?

It might feel like we are drifting from the original task of generating random hex colors. Do we really need a more exact specification? We could start building our hex color fuzzer and address latent ambiguities as they arise. While this is true, writing a formal grammar for hex color strings is a worthwhile exercise. In addition to exposing ambiguities, our hex color grammar will show us how to structure our fuzzers.

A formal grammar is a notation that uses patterns of symbols to describe a set of valid strings. The patterns of symbols are the “grammar of” whatever you are describing. There are two types of symbols in formal grammar: terminal and nonterminal. The names terminal and nonterminal imply action or movement. A terminus is where something stops or ends. In this case, the action or movement is replacement. Given a nonterminal symbol, we want to replace it with a terminal symbol. A string is valid if the nonterminal symbols can be replaced with terminal symbols in a way which produces that string.

Formal grammar is a theoretical subject but we can learn what we need to know by looking at an example. Let’s say that we have four strings: "aa", "AA", "aA" and "Aa". These strings form our language. Only these four strings are valid in this language. Here’s how we can describe that language with a context-free grammar:

Start = Char, Char;

Char = "A" | "a";

Let’s walk through the process of testing whether "aA" is a valid sentence according to our grammar. We take the first character in "aA" which is "a". Then we look at the right side of the Start symbol, moving left to right. First we encounter the nonterminal symbol Char. In order to test whether "a" matches Char, we have to replace Char with a terminal symbol. To do this, we go down to the definition of Char. On the right side of Char, we first find "A". "A" does not match "a". But "A" is not our only option. | is the logical OR. So Char can be replaced with "A" or "a". "a" matches Char. So far, so good.

Now we need to test the second character in our string: "A". We return to Start and move right, finding a second nonterminal symbol Char. Then we test "A" in the same way that we tested "a" and find that it matches Char. Finally, we are out of characters to test and nonterminal symbols to replace. Our string ends where are pattern ends. The pattern of characters in our string match the pattern of symbols in our grammar. "aA" is a valid sentence in our language.

A formal grammar for hex colors

Now let’s write a context-free grammar for a hex color string. We’ll start with our atomic elements, the terminal symbols, and work up to the Start symbol.

All hex colors are hexadecimal numbers. To write a hex color grammar, we must first write a grammar for hexadecimal numbers. A hexadecimal number is base 16 which means that there are sixteen digits, instead of the usual 10 digits. These digits are represented by the integers 0 through 9 and the letters A through F. Let’s start by creating a nonterminal symbol called Num.

Num = "0" | "1" | "2" | "3" | "4" | "5" | "6" | "7" | "8" | "9";

The alphabetic digits are slightly more complicated because any letter can be lowercase or uppercase. We describe this by creating a nonterminal symbol for each letter and then joining these in an Alpha symbol.

A = "A" | "a";

B = "B" | "b";

C = "C" | "c";

D = "D" | "d";

E = "E" | "e";

F = "F" | "f";

Alpha = A | B | C | D | E | F;

In a similar fashion, we join Num and Alpha in a HexDigit symbol. This is our first hex color building block.

Hex1 = Alpha | Num;

Another atomic element of a hex color string is the # symbol. Every hex color (in our grammar) starts with this character. This is our second hex color building block.

Hash = "#";

Now that we’ve described the atomic elements of a hex color string, we can start to describe the string itself. Hex colors come in three-digit and a six-digit formats. We’ll worry about adding the hash later. For now, we’ll focus on describing these three and six digit patterns.

Hex3 = Hex1, Hex1, Hex1;

Hex6 = Hex3, Hex3;

To describe the three-digit format, we simply repeat the Hex1 symbol three times. And to describe the six-digit format, we simply repeat the Hex3 symbol two times. Now we have all the building blocks we need to define the Start symbol.

Start 
  = Hash, Hex3 
  | Hash, Hex6;

All together, here is the grammar:

Start 
  = Hash, Hex3
  | Hash, Hex6;

Hash = "#";

Hex6 = Hex3, Hex3;

Hex3 = Hex1, Hex1, Hex1;

Hex1 = Num | Alpha;

Num  = "1" | "2" | "3" | "4" | "5" | "6" | "7" | "8" | "9";

Alpha = A | B | C | D | E | F;

A = "A" | "a";

B = "B" | "b";

C = "C" | "c";

D = "D" | "d";

E = "E" | "e";

F = "F" | "f";

From formal grammar to fuzzers

You might have noticed that our formal grammar made liberal use of two powerful logical patterns: recursion and combination. Nonterminal symbols are resolved to terminal symbols recursively. Smaller patterns are combined to create larger patterns. We can use the same approach to create a hex color fuzzer.

Again, let’s start with the smallest pieces: letters and numbers. Fuzz.string and Fuzz.int aren’t much help because they generate any String or Int, respectively. This might include characters that aren’t hex digits or numbers that are out of the hex color range. Instead we can use Fuzz.constant to create a fuzzer for each hexadecimal digit. For example, Fuzzer.constant "1" is a fuzzer that always generates a "1". Then we can use Fuzz.oneOf to combine each of these hex digit fuzzers. The result is a fuzzer that generates a single, random hex digit. Note that the Elm code closely resembles our context-free grammar.

hex1 : Fuzzer String
hex1 =
    Fuzz.oneOf
        [ alpha
        , num
        ]

alpha : Fuzzer String
alpha =
    Fuzz.oneOf
        [ Fuzz.constant "a"
        , Fuzz.constant "b"
        , Fuzz.constant "c"
        , Fuzz.constant "d"
        , Fuzz.constant "e"
        , Fuzz.constant "f"
        , Fuzz.constant "A"
        , Fuzz.constant "B"
        , Fuzz.constant "C"
        , Fuzz.constant "D"
        , Fuzz.constant "E"
        , Fuzz.constant "F"
        ]

num : Fuzzer String
num =
    Fuzz.oneOf
        [ Fuzz.constant "0"
        , Fuzz.constant "1"
        , Fuzz.constant "1"
        , Fuzz.constant "2"
        , Fuzz.constant "3"
        , Fuzz.constant "4"
        , Fuzz.constant "5"
        , Fuzz.constant "6"
        , Fuzz.constant "7"
        , Fuzz.constant "8"
        , Fuzz.constant "9"
        ]

We can also use Fuzz.constant to create a fuzzer for the "#" character.

hash : Fuzzer String
hash =
    Fuzz.constant "#"

Once again, we have our basic building blocks and we want to start combining them into more complex patterns. In the syntax of our context-free grammar, , is the concatenation operator. Elm also provides a string concatenation operator: (++). But we can’t apply this operator directly to the fuzzers in the way we applied , to the nonterminal symbols. Like any algebraic data type, we have to use operators like map to transform the value that the type represents. For a 3-digit hex number, we’ll use Fuzz.map3 to apply the concatenation operator to three random hex digits:

hex3 : Fuzzer String
hex3 =
    Fuzz.map3 (\a b c -> a ++ b ++ c) hex1 hex1 hex1

Before we go any further, let’s take a moment to extract some helper functions.

repeat2 : Fuzzer String -> Fuzzer String
repeat2 fuzzer =
    Fuzz.map2 (++) fuzzer fuzzer


repeat3 : Fuzzer String -> Fuzzer String
repeat3 fuzzer =
    Fuzz.map2 (++) fuzzer <| repeat2 fuzzer

Now we can use these abstractions to simplify the digit3 fuzzer and create a digit6 fuzzer.

hex3 : Fuzzer String
hex3 =
    repeat3 hex1


hex6 : Fuzzer String
hex6 =
    repeat2 hex3

Again, note how closely our Elm code resembles our hex color string grammar:

Hex3 = Hex1, Hex1, Hex1;

Hex6 = Hex3, Hex3;

hex3 and hex6 are then combined to create a single fuzzer that randomizes the 3-digit or 6-digit format. This is our ultimate hex number fuzzer; a fuzzer that generates a hex number within the hex color range.

hex : Fuzzer String
hex =
    Fuzz.oneOf
        [ hex3
        , hex6
        ]

Finally, we prepend this random hexadecimal string with the "#" character. Now we have a fuzzer that randomly generates a valid hex color string.

hexColor : Fuzzer String
hexColor =
    Fuzz.map2 (++) hash hex

Formal grammar is fuzzy thinking

String fuzzers can be used like a formal grammar to describe patterns of characters. Each fuzzer is equivalent to a nonterminal symbol. The value generated by the fuzzer is equivalent to a terminal symbol. Combining nonterminal symbols into small patterns and small patterns into large patterns is a relatively easy way to create fuzzers that generate random strings within complex constraints.